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Full text of "A catalogue of Russian icons received from the American Russian Institute for exhibition: Worcester, March 9-April 5, 1931."

RUSSIAN ICONS 



WORCESTER ART MUSEUM 



V 



WORCESTER ART MUSEUM 



A CATALOGUE 

OF 

RUSSIAN ICONS 

RECEIVED FROM 

THE AMERICAN RUSSIAN INSTITUTE 

FOR EXHIBITION 



WORCESTER 

MARCH 9-APRIL 5 
M CM XXXI 



COPYRIGHT BY 

THE WORCESTER ART MUSEUM 

MARCH, I 93 I 



RUSSIAN ICONS 



PREFACE 

The Russian icons of the twelfth to the nineteenth century, 
described in this catalogue, are received from the American 
Russian Institute. The exhibition has previously been shown 
in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London, and in several 
other European cities. It is now being circulated in this 
country, coming to the Worcester Art Museum from the 
Metropolitan Museum, New York. It presents an excep- 
tional opportunity for the study and enjoyment of an art 
comparatively little known. 

Acknowledgement is due to the Victoria and Albert 
Museum and the Metropolitan Museum of Art for their 
kind permission to reproduce the material used in their 
catalogues. Thus the introductory note is here reprinted 
from the Victoria and Albert Museum catalogue, and the 
descriptions of the individual icons reprinted from the 
Metropolitan Museum catalogue. 



[ v ] 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

PREFACE V 

CONTENTS vii 

INTRODUCTION I 

ANCIENT RUSSIAN PAINTING ix 

C ATAL OG U E I 

ILLUSTRATIONS 21 



[ vii ] 



ANCIENT RUSSIAN PAINTING 

Icons from the Twelfth to the Eighteenth Century 

It is now generally known that these masterpieces of Russian 
art, several centuries old, have not reached us in their original 
state but in a very greatly altered form. The fault, however, 
is not mainly due to the destroying hand of time, that is, to 
the gradual perishing and "maladies" of the material. In most 
cases it is the hand of man that has defaced the painting, often 
so disastrously that it has been rendered quite unrecognizable. 
If we wish to see it in the form given to it by its creator, we 
must strip off innumerable strata, removing layer by layer 
coats of paint added in the course of centuries by a variety oif 
"improvers" and vandalistic restorers. 

Paintings that were produced and have been preserved in 
the unchanging radiance and warmth of the southern sun are 
happily in the best possible condition. But in the North, where 
darkness prevails for the greater part of the year and the 
air is damp, pictures naturally suffer the greatest damage. 
Such, moreover, as are exhibited in well-lit galleries can 
be preserved better than those that are kept in badly lighted 
churches, where candles, church lamps, and incense spread a 
daily coat of smoke over them. 

It is natural, therefore, that Russian icons should have suf- 
fered particularly severely in the course of centuries; for the 
most important schools of painting developed north of Mos- 
cow in flat, damp country, and the icons were placed in 
somber, unheated, badly ventilated churches. To the paint- 
ings which they bore was applied a varnish o'f boiled linseed 
oil, which in any case grows darker in poorly lighted build- 
ings; and this, mixed with dust and smoke, gradually formed 
a kind of blackish brown, impenetrable crust which quite 
blotted out the original brilliant tints. Light blue became a 

[ i* ] 



THE WORCESTER ART MUSEUM 

dark green, red a deep brown, white a dark yellow, and yel- 
low a grayish brown. Colors which had originally been trans- 
lucent became dull and hopelessly faded. 

But it was not only the picture that suffered; the wooden 
panel upon which it was painted cracked, the priming broke, 
swelled up, and crumbled to dust, and the colors gradually 
crumbled and broke off in pieces and layers. Very early it 
became necessary to repair the icons, and the ancient chroni- 
cles expressly record the fact. 

Repairs were undertaken because, of course, it was desired 
to preserve the pictures in good condition ; but, actually, the 
originals were systematically painted over again and again, 
partly to gratify some artist's passing fancy and partly for 
purposes of repair and "improvement." At first only the 
cracks and seams were filled in; but by the end of a century 
or so the whole work of art had been painted over from top 
to bottom. Often, indeed, new priming was spread over an 
old-fashioned work, and upon that a new picture was 
painted, sometimes treating of a totally new subject. 

Even in Renaissance art, there are some cases of such 
doings, but in the case of ancient Russian art they became 
the rule. 

Shortly before the World War broke out a beginning was 
made with the task of exposing the ancient fresco paintings 
and icons; thev were to be stripped of century-old strata that 
concealed their original appearance. This work has been thor- 
oughly taken in hand by the Soviet Government. The pres- 
ervation and restoration of monuments of art and of antiquity 
has been intrusted from the very first year of the Revolution 
to a specially constituted State Board. This unique scientific 
research institute, the Tsentralnye Gosudarstvennye Res- 
tavratsionnve Masterskie, or Central National Restoration 
Workshops, has its own large studios, where all kinds of 
reparation and restoration are undertaken. 

In the eleven years which have passed since it was estab- 
lished, the Institute has accomplished an immense amount of 

[x] 



ANCIENT RUSSIAN PAINTING 

work. It has systematically uncovered the most precious cycles 
of frescoes mentioned in the chronicles and still extant, as 
well as a great number of icons. Some of the latter are of 
great age and fame ; others are of more recent date, but im- 
portant by reason of their artistic or historical value. 

Of the distinguished foreigners (keepers of museums and 
representatives of science and art) who have visited Moscow 
during the past ten years, many have repeatedly appealed by 
word of mouth and in writing to the Government authori- 
ties intrusted with the guardianship of these treasures, beg- 
ging them to arrange a special exhibition of icons in Europe 
and America. The object of such an exhibition would be 
primarily to introduce these hitherto unknown works to the 
mass of the people, and secondarily to throw light thereby on 
one of the obscurest epochs in the history of art, the Middle 
Ages, the monuments of which in Western Europe have, 
with a few exceptions, been destroyed as a result of religious 
disturbances. In the years immediately following the Revo- 
lution it was not possible to adopt this suggestion, much as it 
promised to benefit scholarly research; for in the midst of 
confusion and disorder it would hardly have been possible to 
ensure safe and uninterrupted transit. But now that life 
runs its normal course in the Soviet Union, we are able to 
carry out the idea. 

This exhibition is an event of importance not only for 
scholars and artists in Western Europe, but also for Russian 
students of art; for never before have the monuments of an- 
cient Russian painting been collected together with such ex- 
haustive completeness, in such large numbers, and so system- 
atically. The exhibition contains no unique specimens; it was 
deemed impossible to expose them to the risks of transport in 
view of their great age, their fragile nature, and their rare 
value. The oldest examples, therefore, those of the eleventh 
and twelfth centuries, those of specially great artistic or his- 
torical value, and those which are exceptionally fragile are 
represented by copies. But these copies have not been made in 

[ xi ] 



THEWORCESTER ART MUSEUM 

the usual way. They constitute a new type of archaeological 
facsimile; for they reproduce exactly not only the general 
character of the originals and the impression conveyed by 
them, but their whole make-up, their structure, their techni- 
cal peculiarities, even their defects, and this at the exact stage 
of exposure to which the originals have been brought. A copy 
of this kind may almost be said to replace the original; when 
the two have been compared, it has often been impossible for 
experts and students of ancient Russian art to distinguish the 
copy from the original. 

The exhibition also contains many pictures of the first 
quality which will enable the student not only to get a gen- 
eral notion of the character and significance of ancient Rus- 
sian art, but to follow the whole course of its development. 
Anyone visiting the exhibition has therefore before his eyes 
the whole process of evolution of that art. He can see how at 
the outset it borrowed copiously from the treasures of Byzan- 
tium, how gradually it gained individuality and fashioned its 
own ideal, how in its own way and independently it assimi- 
lated elements from the East and the West, and how at last 
— contrary to a widespread view — it resisted the European- 
izing influences of the eighteenth century, and welded and 
transformed baroque and classical styles in a unique system 
expressive of the national love of the decorative. 

No exhibition yet held has offered such alluring prospects 
to the art connoisseur as this. It will furnish him with oppor- 
tunities for making many comparisons and reaching many 
conclusions which will throw unexpected light upon the ob- 
scurest periods not only of Russian but of Western European 
painting; for while distinct marks of individuality tend to 
fade away the further back we penetrate into the past, what is 
universal emerges the more triumphantly for that very reason. 

As regards the history of Russian art as such, the exhibition 
enables us for the first time to grasp fully the significance of 
the Pskov School which developed in such a particular direc- 
tion in the course of several centuries. We can observe, too, 

[ xii ] 



ANCIENT RUSSIAN PAINTING 

the crucial characteristics of the great Novgorod School ; we 
can study the peculiar traits of the Old Suzdal and Old 
Moscow Schools; and we can realize the unique character 
of the North Dvina School and the Schools of Vologda and 
Yaroslavl. 

Another point will strike observers and is well worth 
stressing. The works exhibited will readily be recognized as 
illustrating clearly and convincingly the influence of purely 
topographical considerations in the world of art. The love of 
particular shades and combinations of color is due not to 
abstract ideals, nor even to a definite type of artistic taste; 
the plausible assumption is that the particular colors which 
recur again and again in the icons produced in Novgorod, 
Pskov, or Ferapontov are borrowed from the landscape of 
those localities, and this assumption has been confirmed by 
recent investigations at the above-mentioned centers of Rus- 
sian art. The rosy, lilac, and light blue shades of the fresco 
paintings by Dionysius at Ferapontov are still to be seen on 
the shores of the neighboring lake ; but the marvelous green 
that predominates in the icons of Pskov was first discovered 
as recently as last summer on the banks of the river Velikaya. 

The art of the earliest period, that produced in the eleventh 
and twelfth centuries, is represented, as we have said, by 
copies of the oldest paintings. These include the icon of the 
Vladimir Mother of God, which was brought in the first half 
of the twelfth century from Constantinople to Kiev; that of 
the Vernicle Image of Christ, which belongs like the Vladi- 
mir example to the Uspenski Cathedral in Moscow; that of 
the Archangel Michael or Gabriel (?) — from the Moscow 
Historical Museum — which, like the Image of Christ, has 
golden hair; that of Our Lady Orans from the Spasski 
Monastery, Yaroslavl; that of Saint Demetrius of Thessa- 
lonica from the cathedral in the town of Dmitrov (a detail 
only) ; and the half-length of Saint Nicholas from the 
Monastery of the Holy Ghost in Novgorod. 

[ xiii ] 



THE WORCESTER ART MUSEUM 

The following specimens date from the thirteenth century 
but cannot be unreservedly attributed to the pre-Mongolian 
period of Russian art: Christ's Decent into Hell, the Saint 
John, Saint George, and Saint Blaise from Novgorod, and 
the Deesis (on a panel) from Pskov. If we compare the 
two former with the last-named, we see clearly even in these 
earliest works the essential differences of style in the art of 
the two famous centers of Russian culture. 

Dating from the fourteenth century, when the Byzantine 
tradition was undergoing its first vital transformation on 
Russian soil, are: half of a sanctuary door from the district 
of Tver with a figure of Basil of Caesarea; the Assumption 
of the Blessed Virgin and the "quadripartite" icon from 
Novgorod; the Saint Nicholas and Saint George, and the 
Mother of God (part of a Deesis) from the Suzdal part of 
the Moscow region; the Most Famous Saints, and the 
Mother of God with Saints, from the Pskov country; and 
the Vladimirskava from the North. 

The fifteenth centurv, in which Russian national art at- 
tained the flower of its style, is exhaustively and copiously 
represented in the exhibition. There is a whole procession of 
works from the schools of Novgorod, Pskov, Suzdal, Old 
Moscow, Tver, and the North. Included among these is one 
piece of non-Russian origin — the Deesis with the Apostle 
John — which probablv belongs to the Balkan Peninsula. 
Since it was discovered in the far North, in a ruined little 
church on the Northern Dvina, it deserves a place in an exhi- 
bition of ancient Russian art. We can hardlv hope to discover 
bv what means it reached this remote district; but the fact 
that it had its place among the monuments of Russian art, 
from which it differs so widely in artistic quality, is of suf- 
ficient importance to justify its inclusion in the exhibition. 

The national style reached its consummation in the works 
of Andrew Rublev, who is represented by a copy of his im- 
mortal Troitsa (Trinity) from the Troitse-Sergievskaya 
Lavra and by two icons attributed to him, the Apostle Paul 

[ »▼ ] 



ANCIENT RUSSIAN PAINTING 

and Christ's Descent into Hell. These last-named icons were 
until the end of the eighteenth century in the Uspenski Ca- 
thedral in Vladimir, which in 1408 was embellished with 
paintings which either came from Rublev's brush or were 
produced under his direction. In the reign of Catherine II 
these icons were removed from the cathedral and sold to the 
peasants of the village of Vasilievskoe (in the Government 
of Vladimir); in 1922 they were brought to Moscow for 
the purpose of restoration. 

The first of these, which is of gigantic size, shows us 
Rublev's monumental style. It almost produces the effect of 
a fresco painting; for Rublev knows how to sacrifice all 
minor details to the general effect. We may observe in pass- 
ing that this icon has suffered serious damage; later repairs 
have spoilt it and the original golden color is missing. The 
Descent into Hell bears witness to the master's gift as a pure 
colorist; the mere combination of crude colors does not 
satisfy him; he aims at a particular harmony. 

For a whole century Rublev's influence determined the 
destiny of Russian art; but at the end of the fifteenth cen- 
tury the style which he originated lost its classic severity and 
tended to mere elegance. About this time, however, flourish- 
ed another great painter — Dionysius, who gave expression to 
original artistic aspirations. So far we have few specimens 
of easel painting which can be certainly ascribed to his 
brush; but the exhibition contains one such work, a picture 
of Saint Cyril Belo-Ozerski which comes from the Cyril 
Monastery, and is evidently the work of the famous master, 
who loved tall, slender figures, with small heads, rhythmic 
lines, and delicate coloring. 

But having once entered the path of decorative manner- 
ism, Russian art was now compelled to follow it to the end; 
the whole output of the sixteenth century is therefore charac- 
terized by a multitude of delicacies and tricks of style which 
transformed the simple clarity of early work into something 
complicated and involved. Artists vied with one another in 

[ xv ] 



THE WORCESTER ART MUSEUM 

constructive design, in color schemes, and especially in orna- 
mentation, which sometimes recalls the glowing fantasy of 
the Ea-:. 

Survivals of the grand style could still be found here and 
there ; but more and more rarelv as time passed. About the 
end of the century, however, came another renaissance, and 
the dying flame flared up bright and clear; a school of artists 
arose which, though its work was highlv decorative and full 
of elaborate ornament, nevertheless produced paintings of 
inimitable beauty. This was the School of the Stroganov 
Masters, which is represented in the exhibition bv examples 
of the finest quality. 

In the course of the seventeenth century the influence of 
the Stroganov School became widely diffused, resulting in 
new and exceedingly interesting offshoots, such as the later 
Moscow School, the Yaroslavl School, the Northern School, 
and the School of the Pomorye. Under the influence of 
Western European copperplate engraving this same love of 
ornamentation and affectation found an outlet in the work 
of the Czar's icon painters. 

That Russian icon painting made no advance during the 
reign of Peter I, as some historians have recently asserted, is 
far from being true; the high level of craftsmanship and the 
skill in execution acquired during the seventeenth century 
were not onlv fullv preserved but even raised by the guilds 
of icon painters, and were carried right into the nineteenth 
century. We find the clearest proof of this fact in the fain- 
like, almost Oriental transformation of Western European 
baroque motives which characterized this period and which 
has contributed many examples to the exhibition. 

A display of Russian icons would be incomplete unless it 
had some collection — however small — of the ornamenta- 
tion applied to them. The exhibition, therefore, includes 
such a collection of various types of metal ornament, which 
sometimes constituted a part of the complete picture. 

[ ™ ] 



ANCIENT RUSSIAN PAINTING 

A special section demonstrates the technical processes and 
the new methods employed in reparation and in stripping 
superpositions from the paintings. It is not claimed that these 
processes are the only permissible and correct methods of 
restoration in theory and practice ; our aim is merely to draw 
the attention of art connoisseurs to them in order to provoke 
a lively exchange of expert opinion. Only through such in- 
tercourse, uniting and integrating the isolated and sometimes 
despairing efforts of individual scholars in this difficult, com- 
plex, and important sphere, can the dilettantism of the past 
be superseded by strictly scientific principles in the theory 
and practice of restoration; only so can we permanently 
avert a return to the vandalism of former days. 

Igor Grabar. 

Moscow, February, 1929. 



xvii 



CATALOGUE 



CATALOGUE 

1. THE VIRGIN OF VLADIMIR (COPY). A Copy by A. I. 

Bryagin of an original eleventh-century Byzantine panel 
which was brought to Kiev during the first half of the twelfth 
century. In 1 155 it was taken to Vladimir and in 1395 to the 
Uspenski Cathedral (Cathedral of the Assumption of the 
Virgin), Moscow. Panel, 40^2x26^ m - Illustrated. 
Several other copies of this icon, made at various times 
since the twelfth century, are in this exhibition (see Nos. 18, 
26,61, 64, 77). 
Historical Museum, Moscow. 

2. SAINT DEMETRIUS OF THESSALONICA (COPY). A 

copy by V. O. Kirikov of the head of a twelfth-century orig- 
inal, a full-length seated figure from the Cathedral of 
Dmitrov, near Moscow. Panel, 15 x 12% m - 
Restoration Workshop, Moscow. 

3. the holy napkin (copy). A copy by E. I. Bryagin 
of a twelfth-century original in the Uspenski Cathedral, 
Moscow. On the reverse : Angels Adoring the Cross. Panel, 
30J/2 x 28 in. 

4. head of an angel (copy). A copy by G. O. Chiri- 
kov of one wing of a twelfth-century triptych. Panel, 19 x 
15 in. 

Historical Museum, Moscow. 

5. the virgin orans (copy). A copy by P. Yukin of 
a thirteenth-century panel from the Spasski Monastery 
(Monastery of the Transfiguration), Yaroslavl. On the 
right is reproduced a patch of old restoration which had not 
been cleaned from the original. Panel, 76x47^2 in. 
Restoration Workshop, Moscow. 

[3] 



THE WORCESTER ART MUSEUM 

6. SAINT NICHOLAS, BISHOP OF MYRA. Novgorod School, 

twelfth century, from the Monastery of the Holy Ghost, 
Novgorod. In the roundels: left, Saints Athanasius and 
Onesimus; right, Saints Menas and Parasceva. In the 
border (partly mutilated) : above, Saints Michael and Ga- 
briel; left, Saints Simeon Stylites and Boris and a female 
saint; right, Saints Eudoxia and Gleb and a male saint; be- 
low, unidentified saints. Panel, 26 J4 x 20^4 m « Illustrated. 
Museum of Russian Art, Novgorod. 

7. DEESIS: CHRIST BETWEEN THE VIRGIN AND SAINT 

john the baptist. Pskov School, thirteenth century, 
from the Church of Saint Nicholas, Pskov. The metalwork 
was added in the sixteenth century. Panel, SS'H x 43/4 m * 
Illustrated. 

The Deesis has the central position over the Holy or Royal 
Doors in the center of the Iconostas, the screen which divides 
the sanctuary from the body of the church. 
Restoration Workshop, Moscow. 

8. SAINT JOHN BETWEEN SAINTS GEORGE AND BLAISE. 

Novgorod School, thirteenth century. In the rejoining 
of a split in the panel the figure of Saint John has been 
narrowed and partly lost. Panel, 42% x 26% in - Il- 
lustrated. 
Historical Museum, Moscow. 

9. SAINT BASIL THE GREAT, BISHOP OF CAESAREA. 

Tver School, fourteenth century. The right half of a pair 
of Royal Doors. Panel, 43^ x 13^ in. Illustrated. 
Museum, Tver. 

10. SAINTS PARASCEVA, GREGORY THE THEOLOGIAN, 
JOHN CHRYSOSTOM, AND BASIL THE GREAT. Pskov 

School, fourteenth century. Panel, 58^ x S 2 H m - Illus- 
trated. 
Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow. 

[4] 



RUSSIAN ICONS 

ii. the virgin's assembly. Pskov School, fourteenth 
century, from the Church of Saint Barbara, Pskov. Panel, 
31^2 x 23^ in. 
Restoration Workshop, Moscow. 

12. the prophet elias. Novgorod School, fourteenth 
century. Panel, 22 x 14^2 in. 

Antikvariat, Moscow. 

13. SAINTS NICHOLAS AND GEORGE. Novgorod School, 

fourteenth to fifteenth century. Panel, 20J/2 x 1 7/4 in - 
Antikvariat, Moscow. 

14. quadripartite icon. Novgorod School, fourteenth 
to fifteenth century, from the Church of Saint George, Nov- 
gorod. Above: left, The Raising of Lazarus; right, The 
Old Testament Trinity with Abraham and Sarah; below: 
left, The Presentation in the Temple; right, Saints Pro- 
chorus and John the Evangelist. Panel, 40^2 x 30J4 m « 
Historical Museum, Moscow. 

15. SAINTS THEODORE STRATELATES AND THEODORE 

the tiro, martyrs. Novgorod School, fifteenth century. 
Above, in the semicircle, is Christ Blessing. Panel, 21 x 
15 in. 
Antikvariat, Moscow. 

16. SAINTS NICHOLAS AND GEORGE. MoSCOW School, 

fourteenth century, from the Guslitski Monastery. Panel, 

63^ X4-Sy 2 in. 

Restoration Workshop, Moscow. 

17. the virgin (deesis type). Moscow School ; the 
head is early fifteenth century, the figure and the metal work 
are sixteenth century; from the Sacristy of the Troitse- 
Sergieva Lavra (Trinity Monastery of Saint Sergius) . Panel, 
2 1 3/2 x 16 in. Illustrated. 

Art and History Museum, Sergiev. 

[5] 



THE WORCESTER ART MUSEUM 

1 8. the virgin of Vladimir with saints. Northern 
School, fourteenth century, from Vologda. In the border: 
top, the Holy Napkin between a Seraph and a Cherub; 
left, Saints Michael, Elias, Nicholas, Varlaam, and Para- 
sceva; right, Saints John the Baptist, Clement, John the 
Merciful, Menas, and Barbara; below, Saints Anastasia, 
Nicetas, and Catherine. Panel, 27^ x 19 in. 

Museum, Vologda. 

19. THE OLD TESTAMENT TRINITY (COPY). A Copy 

by G. O. Chirikov of a painting ascribed to Andrew Rublev 
(about 141 o) in the Trinity Cathedral of the Troitse- 
Sergieva Lavra. The three angels are represented appearing 
to Abraham at table under the oak at Mamre. Panel, 55^ 
x 44.3/2 in. Illustrated. 
Restoration Workshop, Moscow. 

20. the raising of lazarus. Novgorod School, fifteenth 
century. Panel, 28j4 x 22 J4 in * 

Museum, Novgorod. 

21. WISDOM HATH BUILDED HER HOUSE. Novgorod 

School, fifteenth century, from the Monastery of Saint Cyril. 
It illustrates Proverbs IX :i, "She hath hewn out her seven 
pillars, she hath killed her beasts, she hath mingled her wine, 
she hath also furnished her table; she hath sent forth her 
servants with a high summons to the cup." In the larger me- 
dallion on the left Wisdom is seated on a seven-pillared 
throne surrounded by four Beasts, Seraphs, and Thrones. In 
the medallion on the right are the Virgin and Child. Below, 
Saint John Damascene sings the praises of the Virgin as the 
Temple of Divine Wisdom; at the left Solomon responds 
from his temple.' Above is the House of Wisdom with seven 
General Councils, presided over by seven angels. Panel, 

57^ X4i^4 in - 
Museum, Novgorod. 



[6] 



RUSSIAN ICONS 
2 2. SAINTS DEMETRIUS OF THESSALONICA, PARASCEVA, 

and anastasia. Novgorod School, fifteenth century. 

Panel, 4.0^4 x 3 2 /4 m « 
Museum, Novgorod. 

23. THE ENTOMBMENT, THE VIRGIN AND CHILD, THE 
PROPHET ELIAS, AND SAINTS BORIS, GLEB, PANTELEIMON, 

and parasceva. Novgorod School, fifteenth century. 

Panel, 33% x 2 4-Ya m - 
Historical Museum, Moscow. 

24. triptych: saints Nicholas, blaise, florus, and 
anastasia. Novgorod School, fifteenth century. Panel, 

9/^2 x 6j4 in- 
Historical Museum, Moscow. 

25. virgin and child. Fifteenth century. A scene in 
each corner. Panel, 41^x33 in. Illustrated. 

This type of Virgin is called Eleusa, Umileme (Tender, 
Pitiful toward the Child). 
Russian Museum, Leningrad. 

26. the virgin of vladimir. A copy of the original 
of Number I, from the Suzdal-Moscow School, made in 
the fifteenth century and showing the overpainting of the 
original at that time. Panel, 26^4 x 20 in. 

Museum, Vladimir. 

27. the nativity. Moscow School, fifteenth century. 
The frame and halos of silver filigree and enamel were 
added later. Panel, 12^2 x 10% m « 

Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow. 

28. the virgin protectress. Moscow School, fif- 
teenth century. The Virgin, attended by Saint John the Bap- 
tist and the Apostles, descends upon a cloud and spreads her 
veil over her people, as seen in a vision by Saints Epiphanius 
and Andrew the Fool in the Church at Blachernae. Below, 
upon an ambo, is Romanus the Sweet Singer, and to the left, 
the Emperor Leo and his Empress. Panel, I2j4 x 9 in. 
Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow. 

[7] 



THE WORCESTER ART MUSEUM 

29. the virgin of Georgia. Moscow School, late fif- 
teenth century, from the Troitse-Sergieva Lavra. The halos, 
background, and border of repousse silver are contemporarv. 
Panel, 13J4 x 1 1 in. 

Art and Histcr -eum, Serg k 

30. -INT GEORGE AND THE DRAGON. MoSCOW School, 

fifteenth century. The silver mount contemporary. 

Panel, I0j4 x 9 in. 
Historical Museum, Moscow. 

31-34. the four Moscow School, fif- 

teenth century. Fragments of Royal Doors. Panels, 2lj4 x 
l8j4 m. each. Number 32 illustrated. 

Tretyakov Gallery, Mosco 

35. the DUCCJii into hell. Attributed to Andrew 
Rublev, Moscow School, early fifteenth century. This panel 
came from the Festival Tier above the Deesis (see N . ~ I in 
the Iconostas of the Uspenski Cathedral, Vladimir, which 

painted in 1 408 by Rublev. In the eighteenth century 
this Iconostas was taken to Yasilievskoe near Shuya, whence 
in 1922 it was removed to Moscow. Panel, 48^2 x 2&Y\ *&- 
Restoration Workshop, Moscow. 

36. F paul. Attributed to Andrew Rublev, Moscow 
School, early fifteenth century. This panel and the foil 
ing, Number 37, came from the Deesis Tier of the Iconostas 
of the Uspenski Cathedral, Vladimir. For its history see 
Number 5. Panel, 122^x41^ in. 

Restoration Workshop, Moscow. 

the archangel Michael. A companion piece to 
N mber 36. To provide a contrast to the preceding icon, 
this panel has been left uncleaned. Panel, 124 x 50*4 m - 
Restoration Workshop, Moscow. 

38. the nativity. Moscow School, early fifteenth cen- 
tury, from Z rr^orod. Panel, 273^x21^4 in. Illustrated. 
Restoration Workshop, Moscow. 



RUSSIAN ICONS 

39. the virgin of the sign. Fifteenth century. For- 
merly the center of the Prophets' Tier of the Iconostas in the 
Cathedral of Kashin, Government of Tver. The painting 
commemorates the intervention of the Virgin to save Nov- 
gorod from the men of Suzdal in 1 169. Panel, 52 x 39 in. 
Historical Museum, Moscow. 

40. the raising of lazarus. Fifteenth century, from 
the Cathedral of Tver. Panel, 40J/2 x 31 in. 
Restoration Workshop, Moscow. 

41. the life of saint Nicholas. Fifteenth to six- 
teenth century, from Tver. The figure of Saint Nicholas is 
surrounded by a border showing fourteen scenes from his 
life. Panel, 24x19 in. 

Antikvariat, Moscow. 

42. the nativity. Sixteenth century, from Tver. Prob- 
ably a companion piece to the following, Number 43. Panel, 
21% x ij}i in. 

Antikvariat, Moscow. 

43. the transfiguration. Sixteenth century, from 
Tver. Probably a companion piece to Number 42. Panel, 
2 1 % x 1 7 in. 

Antikvariat, Moscow. 

44. THE PRESENTATION OF THE VIRGIN IN THE TEMPLE. 

Northern School, fifteenth century, from Krivoe, Govern- 
ment of Archangel. The Annunciation is depicted above. 
Panel, 35^4 x 25^2 in. 
Restoration Workshop, Moscow. 

45. royal doors. Northern School, fourteenth to fif- 
teenth century. Above, The Annunciation; in the center, 
The Eucharist; below, the Four Evangelists. Panels, 63% 
x 31^2 in. each. 

Museum, Archangel. 

[9] 



THE WORCESTER ART MUSEUM 

46. CHRIST WASHING THE APOSTLES* FEET. Fifteenth 

century, from the Cornelius Monastery, Goyernment of 
Vologda. A companion panel to the following, Number 47. 
Panel, 32*4 x 2 4 in. 
Museum, Vologda. 

47. the three MARYS at the sepulcher. A com- 
panion panel to Number 46. Panel, 32 x 2334 m - 
Museum, Vologda. 

48. the virgin and child. Fifteenth century, from 
the Uspenski Church, Pskov. The applied metalwork is of 
the early sixteenth century. On the reverse: The Trans- 
figuration. Panel, 28^4 X22^J in. Illustrated. 
Museum, Pskov. 

49. SAINT DEMETRIUS OF THESSALONICA. Pskov School, 

fifteenth century, from the Church of Saint Barbara, Pskov. 
The halo was added in the sixteenth century. Panel, 
2834 x 22 J4 in. Illustrated. 
Restoration Workshop, Moscow. 

50. the redeemer enthroned. South Slavonic School, 
fifteenth century. With the following two panels, Numbers 
51 and 52, this panel formed a Deesis. Although painted in 
the south, probablv in the Balkan Peninsula, the three panels 
were found in a small church at Krivoe, Government of 
Archangel. Panel, 55 x 37^4 in. Illustrated. 
Restoration Workshop, Moscow. 

51. the virgin. South Slavonic School, fifteenth century. 
See Number 50. Panel, 55 x 20^2 in. 

Restoration Workshop, Moscow. 

52. saint John the EVANGELIST. South Slavonic 
School, fifteenth century. See Number 50. Panel, 55 x 
i> 3 4 in. 

It is more usual to find Saint John the Baptist in a Deesis. 
Restoration Workshop, Moscow. 

[10] 



RUSSIAN ICONS 

53. saint Nicholas, bishop of myra. Fifteenth to 
sixteenth century. The border shows fourteen scenes from 
the life of Saint Nicholas. Panel, 31^/2 X2I in. Illustrated. 
Museum, Vladimir. 

54. saint Nicholas, bishop of myra. Fifteenth to 
sixteenth century, from the Church of Saint Nicholas Na- 
dein, Yaroslavl. Panel, 50% x 37 24 m « 

Museum, Yaroslavl. 

55. saint cyril of belo-ozero. Attributed to Dio- 
nysius, late fifteenth century, from the Cathedral of Kiril- 
lova. The silver mounting is of the sixteenth century. 
Panel, 48^2 x 24^ in. Illustrated. 

Museum, Novgorod. 

56. the crucifixion. Fifteenth century, from the Fes- 
tival Tier of the Iconostas in the Obnorski Monastery, Gov- 
ernment of Vologda. Below the cross the two figures 
accompanied by angels represent the Church and the Syna- 
gogue. Panel, 33^2 x 20^/2 in. 

Museum, Vologda. 

57. in thee rejoiceth. Early sixteenth century, from 
the Uspenski Church at Dmitrov, Government of Moscow. 
It illustrates the hymn to the Virgin, "In thee rejoiceth, O 
Gracious One, every creature, the choir of angels, and the 
race of man." Panel, 57^2 x 43% in. 

Restoration Workshop, Moscow. 

58. 59. THE ARCHANGELS MICHAEL AND GABRIEL. Early 

sixteenth century, from the Deesis Tier of the Iconostas 
in the Monastery of Saint Savior, Yaroslavl. Panels, 68^2 
x 3°24 in « each. Number 58 illustrated. 
Museum, Yaroslavl. 

60. the crucifixion. Moscow School, sixteenth century. 
Panel, 15 x 12^4 in - 
Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow. 

[11] 



THE WORCESTER ART MUSEUM 

6 1. the virgin of vladimir. Moscow School, sixteenth 
century. Panel, n^4 x 10*4 in. 

Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow. 

62. saint leontius of Rostov. Sixteenth century, from 
the Sacristy of the Troitse-Sergieva Lavra. The nimbus 
in filigree is of the fifteenth century; the applied repousse 
silver is partly fifteenth- and partly sixteenth-century work. 
Panel, 1 i l / 2 x 9 in. 

Museum, Sergiev. 

63. the holy napkin. Moscow School, fifteenth to six- 
teenth century, from the Sacristy of the Troitse-Sergieva 
Lavra. The mounting is contemporary. Panel, 1 1 ^ x 9^2 
in. 

Museum, Sergiev. 

64. the virgin of vladimir. Moscow School, sixteenth 
century, from the Sacristy of the Troitse-Sergieva Lavra. 
The mounting and the halo are contemporary. Panel, 10^4 

x 8^4 in « 
Museum, Sergiev. 

65. THE INCREDULITY OF THOMAS. MOSCOW School, 

sixteenth century. Panel, 33^2 x 21 j/4 in. 
Historical Museum, Moscow. 

66. SAINT NICHOLAS, BISHOP OF MYRA. MOSCOW School, 

sixteenth century, from the Sacristy of the Troitse-Sergieva 
Lavra. The silver mounting is contemporary. In the 
medallions on each side of the saint are Christ and the Virgin 
respectively. The saints on the border are: Peter, George, 
the Trinity of the Old Testament, Demetrius, Paul; Basil 
the Great, John the Baptist; Theodore Stratelates, Irene; 
Gregory, Tykhon; John Chrysostom, Theodosia; Nicetas, 
Menas, Eudoxia, Cyril, Methodius, Leontius, and Androni- 
cus. Panel, 17J4 x 13/^ in. 
Museum, Sergiev. 

[12] 






RUSSIAN ICONS 

67. the virgin protectress. Moscow School, sixteenth 
century. For a description see Number 28. Panel, 29^ x 

24^4 m - 

History and Art Museum, Rostov. 

68. Christ the redeemer. Moscow School, fifteenth 
century, from the Cathedral of the Annunciation, Kirshach, 
Government of Vladimir. Panel, 18 x 145/2 in. 
Restoration Workshop, Moscow. 

69. saint cyril of belo-ozero. Attributed to Dio- 
nysius, sixteenth century, from the Uspenski Cathedral, Cyril 
Monastery, Belo-Ozero. Panel, 59/^ x 46 in. 
Restoration Workshop, Moscow. 

70. the virgin and child. Moscow School, sixteenth 
century, from the Sacristy of the Troitse-Sergieva Lavra. 
The silver mounting is of the previous century. Panel, 8 */2 

x 6 J4 m » 
Museum, Sergiev. 

71. LAZARUS, THE FRIEND OF CHRIST. MOSCOW School, 

sixteenth century. Panel, 5034 x 33/^ in. 
Antikvariat, Moscow. 

72. saint Nicholas. Moscow School, sixteenth century. 
Panel, 50*^x33^ in. 

Antikvariat, Moscow. 

73-76. FOUR SCENES FROM THE LIFE OF SAINT GEORGE. 

Novgorod School, sixteenth century. These panels are 

fragments of the same icon. 

Saint George Brought to the Emperor, 8*4 x 6/4 m « 

Saint George before the Emperor, 8j4 x 6/4 m - 

Saint George Raising a Dead Man, 7% x 6/4 in. 

A Miraculous Cure before the Icon of Saint George, 7% x 

6 J / 4 in. 

Russian Museum, Leningrad. 

[ 13 ] 



THE WORCESTER ART MUSEUM 

77. the virgin of vladimir. Novgorod School, six- 
teenth century, from the Monastery of Saint Anthony, Nov- 
gorod. The silver mountings are contemporary. On either 
side of the Virgin are, respectively, Saint Alexander of Svir 
and Saint John, Archbishop of Novgorod. Panel, i6yi x 
13/4 in. 

Museum, Novgorod. 

78. SAINTS MARY MAGDALEN, BORIS, THEODORE, AND 

xenia. Novgorod School, sixteenth century, from the Mon- 
astery of Saint Anthony, Novgorod. Panel, 17 x 14^ in. 
Museum, Novgorod. 

79. FRAME OF AN ICON OF THE VIRGIN. Novgorod 

School, sixteenth century, from the Monastery of Saint An- 
thony. The sixteen medallions illustrate the life of the 
Virgin and the verses of the Acathist Hymn. Panel, 24 x 
21 in. 
Museum, Novgorod. 

80. the baptism OF christ. Moscow School, fifteenth 
to sixteenth century. A companion panel to the following, 
Number 81. Panel, 2i}4 x J 4/4 m » 

Antikvariat, Moscow. 

81. the crucifixion. A companion panel to Number 
80. Panel, 2i}4 x 1434 m - 

Antikvariat, Moscow. 

82. the descent into hell. Northern School, fif- 
teenth to sixteenth century, from Kholenovo, Government 
of Vologda. Panel, 49J4 x 2 & * n ' 

Museum, Vologda. 

83. THE BEHEADING OF SAINT JOHN THE BAPTIST. 

Pskov School, sixteenth century, from the Church of Saint 
Epiphanius, Pskov. Panel, 33^4 x 28% m - 
Museum, Pskov. 

[ 14 ] 



RUSSIAN ICONS 

84. SAINT VARLAAM OF KHUTYN. Pskov School, middle 

of the sixteenth century, from the Kremlin, Moscow. 
Around the border are twenty scenes of the saint's life and 
miracles. Panel, ij%. x 14J/2 in. 

Saint Varlaam, who died in 1243, founded a monastery 
at Khutyn, near Novgorod. 
Historical Museum, Moscow. 

85. saint george and the dragon. Northern School, 
sixteenth century, from the Church of Saint Theodore the 
Tim, in the district of Kadniki, Government of Vologda. 
Panel, 36^2 x 23% m « 

Museum, Vologda. 

86. saints blaise, florus, and anastasia. Northern 
School, sixteenth century, from Osinovoe, Government of 
Archangel. Panel, 19x14% in « 

Restoration Workshop, Moscow. 

87. saints florus and laurus. Northern School, six- 
teenth century, from Troitskoe, district of Shenkursk, Gov- 
ernment of Archangel. Panel, 31 x 24 in. 

These are the patron saints of horsemen. 
Restoration Workshop, Moscow. 

88. royal doors. Northern School, sixteenth century, 
from Krivoe, Government of Archangel. Above, The An- 
nunciation; below, Saints Basil the Great and John Chry- 
sostom. Panels, 50 x 26% m - each. 

Restoration Workshop, Moscow. 

89. SAINT GEORGE AND THE DRAGON. MOSCOW School, 

sixteenth century, from the Guslitski Monastery. Panel, 42 
x 35% in. Illustrated. 
Restoration Workshop, Moscow. 



[ >5 ] 



THE WORCESTER ART MUSEUM 

90. saints. Sixteenth century. Top row: Onesimus, 
Peter, the Virgin of the Sign, Paul, and an unknown saint. 
Second row: Onuphrius, Cyril, John the Apostle, an un- 
known saint, and Macarius. Third row: Maximus of Mos- 
cow, Zosimus, Menas, an unknown saint, and Procopius of 
Ustyug. Bottom row: Mar}- of Egypt, Anna, Joachim, 
and two unknown saints. Left border: Sergius, Leonidas, 
Alexander of Svir, Parasceva, Barbara. Right border: Var- 
laam, Amphilochius, Alexander, Catherine, and Agatha. 
Panel, 18^ x 15*4 in - 

Museum, Vologda. 

91. laudate dominum de caelis. Seventeenth century, 
from the Kirillo-Novo-Ozerski Monaster)'. The painting 
illustrates Psalm cxlviii, most of the text of which is in- 
scribed on the gold background. Christ appears in a halo of 
cherubim and angels, with the four beasts and nine hosts of 
angels; above are the heavens, the sun and the moon, and the 
waters above the heavens. Panel, 1234 x 103^2 in. 
Museum, Novgorod. 

92. saints vasili blazhenny and artemius of ver- 
KOLV. By a painter who worked for the Stroganov family, 
Moscow School, sixteenth to seventeenth century. In the 
background are views of Moscow and Verkoly. Panel, 13 
x 1 1 in. Illustrated. 

Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow. 

93. SAINT ALEXIS, THE METROPOLITAN OF MOSCOW. By 

the same painter as Number 92, Moscow School, sixteenth 
to seventeenth century. Panel, I2j<2 x 10^ in. 
Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow. 

94. the nativity. Painted for the Stroganov family, 
sixteenth to seventeenth century. The Prophet Isaiah is in- 
troduced into the traditional rendering of this scene. Panel, 
1434 x 12 in. 

Restoration Workshop, Moscow. 

[ 16 ] 



RUSSIAN ICONS 

95. deposition of the virgin's girdle. Painted by 
Pervusha for M. Y. Stroganov, sixteenth to seventeenth 
century. Panel, 15% x 13 in. 

Restoration Workshop, Moscow. 

96. THE HOLY NAPKIN BROUGHT TO KING ABGARUS. 

Painted by Pervusha for M. Y. Stroganov, sixteenth to 
seventeenth century. Panel, 15^4 x 1 2>Ya m « 

The Holy Napkin was sent by Christ through the painter 
Ananias to the. King of Edessa, who was healed by it. 
Restoration Workshop, Moscow. 

97. THE FRUITS OF THE DOCTRINE OF THE FATHERS 

basil, Gregory, and john chrysostom. Painted by Nice- 
phorus for the Stroganov family, sixteenth to seventeenth 
century. Panel, 14^ x 12% m « 
Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow. 

98. THE PRAISE OF THE MOTHER OF GOD. Painted for 

the Stroganov family, sixteenth to seventeenth century. The 
twelve great festivals are painted on the border. Panel, 
14 J^ x I2j4 m - 
Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow. 

99. deesis. Painted for the Stroganov family, sixteenth 
to seventeenth century. Triptych, 7x18 in. 

Historical Museum, Moscow. 

100. four hymns to the virgin. Painted for the 
Stroganov family, sixteenth to seventeenth century. The 
hymns illustrated are: "It is meet indeed to bless thee, 
Mother of God"; "Ever blessed and most stainless and the 
Mother of our God" ; "More honorable than the Cherubim 
and more glorious than the Seraphim"; "Thee who didst 
spotless bear God the Word." Panel, 12^2 x 10^2 in. 
Historical Museum, Moscow. 



[ 17 ] 



THE WORCESTER ART MUSEUM 

10 1. THE SIX DAYS OF THE WEEK WITH SAINTS. Painted 

for the Stroganov family, sixteenth to seventeenth century. 
The festivals for the days of the week from Sunday to 
Friday: The Resurrection, The Assembly of Saint Michael, 
The Beheading of Saint John the Baptist, The Annuncia- 
tion, The Washing of the Feet, and The Crucifixion. 
Triptych, 7^4 x J 3 in- 
Historical Museum, Moscow. 

102. the last judgment. Painted for the Stroganov 
family, sixteenth to seventeenth century. Panel, i6*4 x 
H J A in. 

Historical Museum, Moscow. 

103. the trinity. Moscow School, sixteenth century. 
The center of a Deesis triptych, of which the following are 
the wings. Panel, 42x31^/2 in. 

Antikvariat, Moscow. 

104. IO5. THE VIRGIN; SAINT JOHN THE BAPTIST. The 

wings of Number 103. Panels, 41J4 x i6^4 in. each. 
Antikvariat, Moscow. 

106. st. george and the dragon, with scenes from the 
life of St. George. Panel, 39 x 33 in. 

Museum, Vologda. 

107. SAINT DEMETRIUS OF THESSALONICA. MoSCOW 

School, seventeenth century. The silver mounting is con- 
temporary. Panel, 11x9^ m « 
Alexandrov Monastery Museum. 

108. VIRGIN AND CHILD ENTHRONED WITH SAINTS. Style 

of the Czar's painters, first half of the seventeenth century, 
from the Sacristy of the Troitse-Sergieva Lavra. The saints 
are Leontius of Rostov and Nicholas, Maximus the Confes- 
sor and Nicetas the Martyr. Panel, 13 x 9 in. 
Museum, Sergiev. 

[ 18 ] 



RUSSIAN ICONS 

109. nativity of Christ. Northern style, eighteenth 
century. Panel, 56 x 45 J4 m « 
Museum, Vologda. 

no. the trinity of the old testament. Late seven- 
teenth century. The three angels appear to Abraham and 
Sarah at table under the oak at Mamre. Panel, 46 x 33^4 
in. 
Museum, Yaroslavl. 

in. canopy from over royal doors. Seventeenth cen- 
tury. In the center the Old Testament Trinity; on each 
side the Eucharist. Panel, 24 x 40% m « 
Museum, Archangel. 

112. the nativity. Seventeenth century, from the dis- 
trict of Ustyug, Government of Vologda. Panel, 28*4 x 
19K in. 

Museum, Vologda. 

113. the dormition of the virgin. By Simeon Usha- 
kov, dated 1663. Panel, 57^2 X47% in « Illustrated. 
Museum, Vladimir. 

114. the virgin of Kazan. By Simeon Ushakov, dated 
1696. Panel, n x 9% m - 

Russian Museum, Leningrad. 

115. Il6. THE CREED AND THE LORd's PRAYER. Late 

seventeenth century, from the Church of Saint Gregory of 
Nova-Caesarea, Moscow. Panels, 51/4 x 3°j4 m « each. 
Restoration Workshop, Moscow. 

117. the virgin OF Kazan. By Tychon Ivanov, 1700, 
from the Ivanovski Monastery, Moscow. On the left border 
is Dionysius the Areopagite, on the right Saint Agatha. 
Panel, 17 J4 x 14^2 in. 
Donskoy Monastery Museum, Moscow. 

[ 19 ] 



THE WORCESTER ART MUSEUM 
I 1 8. THE TRINITY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT. By Peter 

Ivanov Goldobin and his Son, Simon, 1752, showing the in- 
fluence of French eighteenth-century painting. On the sides 
are Saint Basil the Confessor and Saint Matrona. The span- 
drels are later additions. Panel, 45 J4 x 2 9 in - 
Donskoy Monastery Museum, Moscow. 

I 19. EMMANUEL BETWEEN TWO ARCHANGELS. By Peter 

and Michael Sapozhnikov, 1795. Triptych, 13x11 in. 
Historical Museum, Moscow. 

120. saint mary of egypt. The saint's figure of the 
seventeenth century is inserted into a nineteenth-century panel 
which has been painted in imitation of the seventeenth- 
century style. Panel, I2^x ioj4 m « 

Restoration Workshop, Moscow. 

121. virgin and child. Panel, 13J/6 x 11 in. 

122. VIRGIN AND CHILD. Panel, 12*4 x I0 in - 

123. THOSE WHO PRAY ACCORDING TO THE RULES. 

In the background is an iconostas; before it righteous 
monks are being embraced by angels and crowned by holy 
bishops. Nineteenth century. Panel, 15^2 x 41 in. 



[ 20 ] 



ILLUSTRATIONS 




I. THE VIRGIN OF VLADIMIR (COPY) 




6. SAINT NICHOLAS, BISHOP OF MYRA 







DEESIS: CHRIST BETWEEN THE VIRGIN AND 
SAINT JOHN THE BAPTIST 




8. SAINT JOHN BETWEEN SAINTS GEORGE 
AND BLAISE 




9- SAINT BASIL THE GREAT 
BISHOP OF CAESAREA 



— - — I J . ..- — 




10. SAINTS PARASCEVA, GREGORY THE THEOLOGIAN 
JOHN CHRYSOSTOM, AND BASIL THE GREAT 






.-. - -. 




17. THE VIRGIN (DEESIS TYPE) 




19. THE OLD TESTAMENT TRINITY (COPY) 




25- VIRGIN AND CHILD 




32. SAINT MARK 




38. THE NATIVITY 




-j-cS. THE VIRGIN AND CHILD 




49- SAINT DEMETRIUS OF THESSALONICA 




50. THE REDEEMER ENTHRONED 




— 

< 



pq 
O 

u 



LO 



tin v,-y'. vs*. 



• " *~^~^ — ~ jpt 



... — _^ . 






«BR: m 




55. SAINT CYRIL OF BELO-OZERO 




Mi m 



58. THE ARCHANGEL MICHAEL 




89. SAINT GEORGE AND THE DRAGON 



- ^*-**T-- 




92. SAINTS VASILI ELAZHENNY 
AND ARTEMIUS OF VERKOLY 




113- THE DORMITION OF THE VIRGIN 



Printed by 

The Commonwealth Press 

Worcester, Mass. 




WORCESTER ART MUSEUM 



A CATALOGUE 

OF 

RUSSIAN ICONS 

RECEIVED FROM 

THE AMERICAN RUSSIAN INSTITUTE 

FOR EXHIBITION 



WORCESTER 

MARCH 9-APRIL 5 
M CM XXXI 



COPYRIGHT BY 

THE WORCESTER ART MUSEUM 

MARCH, I93I